COMMISSIONING CONTEMPORARY ART
《當代藝術委託指南》


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A: We go through the whole book and we think technically it’s really helpful. Because in China really rare artists notice this (art commission) is a big market.

D: It’s huge! Because one of my first jobs in the art world was in Tokyo, Japan, I worked for Fumio Nanjo. He has done many of the big art commissions in Japan. It’s amazing. Now he is the director of the Mori Art Museum in Tokyo. So I would say it’s a huge area.

A: 這本書從技術上來說真的很有幫助。 在中國,很少有藝術家能意識到(藝術委託項目)是一個很大的市場。

D:這是有巨大市場的!我其中一個初期的藝術項目就是在日本東京,當時為南條史生 (Fumio Nanjo) 工作。 他在日本做了許多非常好的大型藝術委託項目,現在他已經是東京森美術館的館長了。所以我會說藝術委託項目是一個巨大的領域。

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A: In China, people only do commissions for personal portrait, for properties and as such, now more and more Chinese people realize commission in the west is not that limited.

D: No, it’s not. You have public commissions for parks, for hospitals, for council and etc. You also have many other types of commissions.

A:在中國,藝術委託項目一般都是個人肖像,或者是房地產項目。但現在越來越多中國人意識到西方的藝術委託項目並不是如此局限。

D:確實不是。這邊有公共委託項目,譬如為公園、醫院等創作,或者地方政府委託等等,還有許多其他類型的藝術委託項目。

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C.   C2

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A: Having said the commission, how do you define the concept of commission?

D: That’s a very good question. Commissioning is really personal, is in some sort of direct relationship between an artist and the person or entity to create a new work. Historically commission was directly linked to patronage, to individual artists being commissioned by rulers or kings or the church like, the Vatican, like Michelangelo commission for Sistine Chapel. So it implies very personal access between the artist and generally the collector. Contemporary could be more complicated. But generally, the idea of commission is linked to patronage, and that’s what we explore in a historical overview that goes from the Medicis, to the De Menils, who have this great commission of Rothko for the chapel in Austin, Texas. But then this line goes into the DRAF foundation (David Roberts Art Foundation in London) that continues the commissioning activities, so historically it’s about a link to patronage and often with private collectors, or states and institutions. In the contemporary fields which what we explored in the book, the idea of commissioning has evolved into a typology, a different types of people and organizations to involve commissioning art works.

So we identify six main models, there’s the private collector, there’s the institutional collector, like Tate, MoMA, there are event commissions like Performa in New York which commission for the collection of temporary exhibitions, there are not-for-profit organizations, Venice Biennials, and there are private foundations, and then there are city governments. Like just we have said, local spaces, transport systems, hospitals, it’s all sorts of aspects. Commission also has quite public dimension, historically, because it’s often being linked to the creation of sculpture. Sculpture commission has often been linked to monuments and memorials dealing with war, with commemorating, commemoration of important people, individuals for specific spaces.

A:那麼對於藝術委託項目你怎樣定義的呢?

D:這是個非常好的問題。藝術委託項目反映的是一種非常私人的關係,是藝術家與委託人或委託團體在某種形式上的直接關係而產生的新創作。從歷史上看,藝術委託項目直接連繫的是資助方(patronage),藝術家受到統治者、國王或者教會的委託來進行創作,譬如米開朗基羅為西斯廷教堂所作的作品。因此,它隱含著藝術家與藏家的私人聯繫。

當代藝術委託項目更為複雜些。但是總體來說,藝術委託項目的概念與資助緊緊相聯,這也是我們從歷史上能找到線索的,從梅第奇家族(the Medicis)到德・梅尼爾夫婦(the De Menils),德・梅尼爾夫婦曾委託羅斯科(Rothko)為德克薩斯州德奧斯汀德教堂所創作出宏大的作品。然而之後,這條線索延續到大衛・羅伯茨倫敦藝術基金會(David Roberts Art Foundation—DRAF),他們仍繼續著進行各項藝術委託項目。所以從歷史上看,藝術委託項目是與藝術資助、私人藏家、政府或者機構緊密相連的。 我們在這本書中所探討的是當代藝術領域,藝術委託項目的概念已經形成了一門類型學, 即人或組織參與到藝術委託項目的不同類型。

所以,我們歸納了六個主要類型,為私人藏家創作;為收藏機構創作,比如泰特美術館(Tate)、紐約現代藝術博物館(MoMA);為藝術活動創作,比如為紐約的佩佛瑪(Performa)的臨時展覽而創作;為非盈利組織創作,比如威尼斯雙年展;為私人基金會創作;以及為城市政府創作。像我們已經說過的,公共空間、交通系統、醫院等等各方面都有。藝術委託項目也有相當公共的層面,因為從歷史上它往往與雕塑創作相關聯。雕塑的委託項目經常與戰爭和紀念相關,在特定的地點空間以紀念重要的人和個體。


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