Dalí / Duchamp
達利 / 杜尚


Royal Academy of Arts
7 October 2017 — 3 January 2018

Dalí / Duchamp is the first exhibition to present the art of two of the twentieth century’s most famous artists in exclusive dialogue. Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968) and Salvador Dalí (1904– 1989) are usually seen as opposites in almost every respect, yet they shared attitudes to art and life that are manifested in their respective oeuvres on many levels. Taking their friendship as its starting point, the exhibition will demonstrate the aesthetic, philosophical and personal links between them. Over 80 paintings, sculptures, ‘readymades’, photographs, drawings, films and archival material will bring to life the myriad of connections between the works of these two very different creative and intelligent minds.

Duchamp and Dalí met in the early 1930s through mutual contacts in the Surrealist group. Their friendship was consolidated in 1933 when Duchamp made his first visit to the fishing village of Cadaqués, just a short walk from Dalí’s home in Portlligat. From the late 1950s Duchamp rented a house there each summer, and the two artists remained close until Duchamp’s death in 1968. At first glance, they seem like opposites, Dalí was the self-professed genius and notorious Surrealist showman whereas Duchamp was a quieter character. Despite their differences, they recognised each other as a fellow traveller, both profoundly committed to individual freedom. They shared a number of core artistic interests such as optics and language, they were pioneers in the use of found objects and admired and publically supported one another’s work. Fundamentally, the two men were united by a shared humour and scepticism which led them to challenge conventional views of art and life.

Dalí / Duchamp © 2017 ART.ZIP

Dalí / Duchamp will be organised in three main thematic sections focusing on specific points of contact between the artists and capturing the energy and spirit of their friendship and artistic exchange.

Identities will explore Duchamp and Dalí as personalities and artistic identities. While Duchamp was 17 years Dalí’s senior, as young artists both followed similar trajectories, initially experimenting with the artistic movements of their day: Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism and Futurism. It was as a painter that Duchamp came to public attention, however he was to categorically reject the medium, making his last oil painting on canvas in 1918. This section will show the diversity of the canvases painted by both artists, and reveal photographs that examine a conscious play with their public personae and a shared desire to question the role of the artist.

Highlights of this section will include Duchamp’s The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes, 1912 (Philadelphia Museum of Art) one of his many works that draws upon the iconography of chess, and Dalí’s The First Days of Spring, 1929 (The Dalí Museum, St Petersburg, Florida).

The Body and the Object will bring together works by both artists that focus on the theme of eroticism, treated in both figurative and abstracted paintings, drawings and sculptures. Many of these works explore the terrain between art and life activated by each artist’s use of found objects. This is particularly evident in Duchamp’s ‘readymades’ which, in this context, take on bodily connotations including Bicycle Wheel, 1913/1964 (National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa) and the iconic Fountain, 1917/1964 (National Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art, Rome) as well as Dalí’s Lobster Telephone, 1938 (West Dean College, West Sussex).

The final section, Experimenting with Reality will show how Dalí and Duchamp responded to new ideas about time and space, energy, matter and gravity, quantum theory and atomic physics. Duchamp’s dislike of the purely ‘retinal’ in painting was paradoxically paired with his interest in optical effects, which equally captivated Dalí. Both artists made works that explore a shared fascination with perspective and illusion. Highlights of this section will include Dalí’s major work Christ of Saint John of the Cross, c. 1951 (Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow) and Apparition of Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach, 1938 (Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut) as well as Duchamp’s The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass), 1915 (reconstruction by Richard Hamilton 1965-6/1985, Tate, London).

《達利/杜尚》是第一個以對話方式展示兩位二十世紀最著名的藝術家作品的展覽。馬塞爾·杜尚(1887-1968)和薩爾瓦多·達利(1904-1989)幾乎在所有領域都被視為對立面,然而他們在各自的作品中卻在不同程度上表現出對藝術和生活的相似態度。以他們的友誼為出發點,展覽將展示兩人在美學、哲學上和私人生活的聯繫,用超過80幅油畫、雕塑、“現成品”、照片、素描、電影和檔案資料重現兩個獨特的創意、睿智頭腦之間種種連結。

20世紀30年代初,杜尚和達利在超現實主義團體中相遇,並在1933年杜尚首次造訪離達利在利加特港的家很近的卡達克斯漁村時成為至交。從50年代末期開始,杜尚每年夏天都會在那裡租一所房子,兩位藝術家在1968年杜尚去世前一直保持著緊密聯繫。乍看之下,他們似乎是對立的:達利自稱天才,是當時臭名昭著的超現實主義中風頭最盛的人,相比之下杜尚是一個安靜得多的人物。儘管彼此間有分歧,他們卻認為對方是深深致力於實現個人自由的同路人。他們對許多藝術主題,如光學和語言,有著相同的興趣,他們是創作現成藝術品的先驅,並欽佩和公開支持彼此的作品。從根本上說,正是這種相似的幽默感和質疑一切的態度使得他們團結起來,一同挑戰傳統的藝術和人生觀。

《達利/杜尚》劃分為三個主題,專注於藝術家之間的具體關聯點,並展現其友誼所散發的能量、精神和他們之間的藝術交流。

“身份”將探討杜尚和達利的個性和藝術身份。杜尚比達利年長17歲,作為年輕藝術家時他們都沿襲了相似的軌跡,參與過他們那個時代的各種藝術運動:印象派、野獸派、立體主義和未來主義。杜尚以畫家的身份受到公眾關注,然而他對媒體極為抗拒,並於1918年創作了最後一幅油畫。這章節將展示兩位藝術家多樣的油畫作品,還有他們用來刻意嘲弄自身公眾形象和質疑藝術家角色的攝影圖片。亮點將包括杜尚眾多借鑒了象棋圖像的作品之一,《被快速飛旋的裸體包圍的國王和王后》(1962年,藏於費城藝術博物館),和達利的《春天的第一天》(1929年,達利博物館,佛羅里達州聖彼得堡)。

“身體和對象”將匯集兩位藝術家專注於色情主義的作品,例如具象和抽象的油畫、素描及雕塑,探索他們使用現成物體創作時在藝術和生活之間開啟的新地帶。這一點在杜尚的“現成品”中尤其明顯,如《自行車輪》(1913/1964年,藏於加拿大國家美術館,渥太華),標誌性的《噴泉》(1917/1964年,藏於國家現當代藝術畫廊,羅馬)以及達利的《龍蝦電話》(1938年,藏於西迪恩學院,西薩塞克斯郡)。

最後一個章節“試驗現實”將展示達利和杜尚對時空、能量、物質和重力、量子理論和原子物理學這些新觀點的回應。杜尚不喜歡繪畫中純粹的“視網膜”效果,卻又對光學效應很感興趣,這種自相矛盾同樣吸引了達利,因此兩位藝術家都創作了一些將透視和錯覺完美結合的作品。這部分的重點包括了達利的《十字架聖約翰基督》(約1951年,藏於凱文葛羅夫藝術博物館,格拉斯哥)、《海灘上的臉和水果盤的幻影》(1938年,沃茲沃思學會,哈特福德,康涅狄格州)以及杜尚的《新娘甚至被光棍們扒光了衣服》,又稱《大玻璃》(1915年,理查德·漢密爾頓重制於1965-6年 / 1985年,藏於泰特美術館,倫敦)。

 

展覽場地:皇家藝術學院
展覽時間:2017年10月7日-2018年1月3日
更多信息:www.royalacademy.org.uk