Hackney Study
哈克尼藝術區


TEXT BY 撰文 x Harry Liu 劉競晨
TRANSLATED BY 翻譯 x Syndi Huang 黃煥欣

Hackney is an area with a collection of artists, creatives and studios. Because of the community they formed, Hackney becomes a vibrant and hippest location in London. We have particularly paid visits to a number of artists who live and work there, to present the art community lifestyles and studios through their narrations and interviews.

這個專題部分是要來為大家展示英國藝術家工作室,由於英國藝術家工作室往往是藝術家集群或者是自發形成的聚落,由此也就形成了一個個區域型的藝術家工作室群落,哈克尼地區就是這樣一個彙集了眾多藝術家及工作室的區域,我們特別走訪了在這裡工作和生活的幾位藝術家,通過他們的自述和訪談展示這裡藝術家群體的生活狀態和他們工作室的面貌。

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In order to leave a macro impression in a whole for readers, we take Hackney as an example from a general point of view.

Hackney is a municipality under the jurisdiction of Greater London, located in the northeast of London, seven or eight km away from the city centre. Although it seems not far away, a lot of people who first come to Hackney are amazed to find it so different from “London”. Hackney is an area with a long history. It is said the name of Hackney can be tracked back to 1000 years ago, the Middle Age, and it is from 16th century it began to flourish. Until today, there remain over 1,300 protected historic buildings in the entire region, many of which are historical heritage from the Tudor, Georgian and Victorian eras. St Augustine’s Tower, built in the 13th century in the downtown Hackney, is the oldest building in the area.

為了能從宏觀上給大家一個整體的感受,我們以哈克尼區域作為一個樣本,從整體上來介紹一下這個區域。

倫敦的哈克尼地區是在大倫敦管轄之下的一個自治市,位於倫敦市東北部,距離中心城區7到8公里,雖然看上去距離不算遠,但很多第一來到哈克尼地區的人都會驚嘆這裡與“倫敦”的巨大不同。哈克尼地區是一個歷史極其悠久的地方,據說“哈克尼”這個名字可以追溯到1000年前的中世紀,而且這裡從16世紀中期就開始蓬勃發展。直到今天,整個區域內還有超過1300座受保護的歷史性建築,很多都是都鐸、喬治和維多利亞時代的歷史遺產,其中坐落於哈克尼市中心的聖奧古斯丁塔(St Augustine’s Tower)興建於13世紀,是這個地區最古老的建築。

The Hackney area we are talking about now was officially established in 1965, covering nearly 20 square kilometres of the northeast London. For a very long period of time, this area received no good reputation, since after World War II immigrants from different nations flooded to the area. Consequently, it earned the name synonymous with crime and poverty. BBC once reported here gathered the poorest people in Britain, nearly half of the children living in low-income families, and as its crime rate remained high, some places in Hackney were called “land of murder”.

現在我們所說的哈克尼是在1965年正式建區,涵蓋了倫敦東北將近20平方公里的區域,在很長一段時間里,這個區域的名聲都不怎麼樣,由於二戰後移民和各色人種的不斷湧入,這裡成為了犯罪和貧窮的同義詞。BBC曾經報導這裡聚集了全英國最貧窮的人群,近一半的兒童生活在低收入家庭,而且此地的犯罪率居高不下,坊間更是把哈克尼的一些地方稱作“謀殺之地”。

The good news is, since the new millennium with the joint efforts of local communities and the Metropolitan Police Department, the safety in the area has witnessed great improvement, with the fastest crime rate drop in London. At the same time, the multiracial mix has been being deepened in Hackney. The 2011 survey shows only 4% of the local population are white British, while 85% of the new population are of other ethnic groups. Because of its cultural diversity and tolerance, for more than 10 years, more and more young people engaged in creative industries have been gathering here. Meanwhile, it is also dispensable from the great support and investment for the cultural and creative industries from the City of London government. The preferential policies and support provide for the young people the opportunity to exercise their talents in this arena. This on the one hand sorts out the problem of idle buildings and industrial factories in the northeast area, and on the other hand stimulates the economic transformation and personnel restructuring in Hackney, which is to achieve various goals at one stroke.

值得欣慰的是,從新千年至今,在當地社區和倫敦警察署的共同努力下,這裡的治安有了長足的進步,成為了倫敦犯罪率下降最快的地區。與此同時,哈克尼地區多人種混雜的程度更加深化,2011年的調查顯示,此地英國白人僅佔當地人口的四成,85%的新增人口為其他族裔。也正因為這裡的文化多樣性和包容性,10多年來越來越多的從事創意產業相關的年輕人都開始聚集於此,當然這也離不開倫敦市政府對於文化創意產業的大力支持和投入,對創意產業的政策傾斜和扶持讓很多年輕人能有機會在這個舞臺上施展拳腳和展露才華,一方面解決了東北部閒置建築和老工業廠房的使用問題,另一方面也極大的拉動了哈克尼地區的經濟產業轉型和人員結構調整,可以說是一舉多得。

Today’s Hackney though cannot strictly be defined as an arts district, as the scope of its coverage is indeed very large, this community brings together over 600 art spaces and studios available for exhibitions (each place accommodates almost thirty to forty designers and artists), and here locate 170 galleries and museums with an abundance of exhibitions, lectures and a variety of activities. In accordance with this standard, Hackney is one of the most intensive districts in the world with regard to the distribution of artists and arts organizations per square metre.

如今的哈克尼雖然沒法從嚴格意義上說是一個藝術區,因為其覆蓋的範圍的確非常大,在這片地域里彙集了超過600座可供展覽展示的藝術空間及工作室(每處工作室區域差不多都聚集有三、四十位設計師或者是藝術家),而且這裡坐落了170多家畫廊和博物館,各種的展覽和講座以及活動簡直是目不暇接,按照這個標準來看,哈克尼地區又可以稱得上是世界上每平方米分佈藝術家和藝術機構最為密集的藝術區之一。