關於戲劇與攝影 採訪喬爾·安德森博士

ART.ZIP: How did you begin the study of theatre photography? What topics are you specially interested in?

JA: I first got fascinated with theatre photography when I realised the wide range of different practices that can come under this heading. I have been interested in theatre and in photography for most of my life. I recall that it was during a visit to the National Media Museum (in those days called the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television), in Bradford, that I started to think about the ways in which some of the notions we associate with photography (posing, staging, etc.) come from theatre.

ART.ZIP:你最初是怎樣開始從事戲劇攝影工作的?有沒有特別 感興趣的題材?

JA:我對戲劇攝影產生興趣,是因為了解到這一領域內容豐富 多樣。我一直很喜歡戲劇和攝影。記得有一次去布拉德福德參觀 國家傳媒博物館(當時叫國家攝影電影電視博物館),我開始意 識到,攝影中的姿勢擺造、佈景等概念都是來源於戲劇。

ART.ZIP: Could you tell us more about theatre photography? Its history, development, status quo, and trend in the future?

JA: It is a very vague term, really, and there are lots of very different practices that might be called ‘theatre photography’. The earliest theatre photographs come very early in the history of photography, and were studio portraits of actors, which were – in a sense – merely examples of the genre of the civic portrait (with actors among those professionals being the subject of a photograph, showing them in their role complete with tools of the trade). But actor portraits progressively incorporated elements from plays: scenery, costumes, props. Actors were thus shown playing a role, although not always a role they themselves had ever played in the theatre. Photographs were not take on the theatre stage until the late 19th Century. In the early 20th Century, a convention, which still exists today, was to photograph actors holding still poses, individually or in groups – a kind of secondary staging of the play, for the benefit of the photographer. In her book, which remains one of the only volumes about theatre photography Chantal Meyer- Plantureux describes how this practice of the photo-call would sometimes produce two identical images, but taken by different photographers working for different agencies. The photo-call was, of course, a necessity for a photographer seeking to make a clear and coherent image – the photosensitive materials and lenses of the time were not able to ‘freeze’ action, especially in the darkness of a theatre. But the practice should also be understood ideologically, as corresponding to what kinds of image were required at a certain point and in a certain society.

ART.ZIP:能否多介紹一下戲劇攝影?比如它的歷史、發展、現狀 以及未來趨勢等等?

JA:戲劇攝影其實是個比較模糊的概念,它涵蓋的形式非常廣 泛。最早的戲劇攝影作品是在攝影發展初級階段就已出現,即演 員的工作室肖像照,屬於公民肖像的一種。圖片的主題為戲劇演 員,他們與其他工作人員一起出現在照片中,並配上相應的道具 來完整地顯示他們扮演的角色。演員肖像照漸漸融合了場景、戲 服、道具等戲劇元素,因此照片呈現的是演員所扮演的角色,有 時也會是他們從未演過的角色。直到19世紀末,戲劇的舞台照 才開始出現。20世紀初期,演員會以個人或合照的形式,在舞台 上保持靜止姿勢以便讓攝影師來拍攝,像是表演戲劇之餘的一個環節,這一做法沿襲至今。法國表演藝術系教授尚托·美耶·普 托羅斯(Chantal Meyer-Plantureux)女士在她的著作中介紹說, 這種為攝影師預留時間拍劇照的做法,有時會導致兩位來自不 同機構的攝影師,拍出完全相同的照片。但這一做法對於攝影師 來說是很有必要的,否則無法拍出清晰銳利的照片,因為當時的 鏡頭拍攝光敏材料或動態效果還不夠理想,加上劇院裡光線太 暗,難度就更大。不過還要考慮的思想觀念的因素,不同時期和 社會環境下所要求的照片也是大不相同的。


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