Contemporary Circus Education
當代馬戲教育


ART.ZIP: Circus has a long history in China, but it hardly has a circus culture. Do you think circus culture is stronger within a western cultural context?

JE: There’s a long history of acrobatics and circus in China – in Russia as well. Both have a very strong tradition of circus, but aesthetically they’re generally closer to traditional circus. Contemporary circus is to traditional circus as contemporary dance is to ballet. So when you think about a ballerina, what they do is very codified: there’s a correct way for them to stand, move, set their shoulders, raise their arms, and so on. Everything is very strict and disciplined. Then when they go on stage the performers are replicating what they’ve learned – they’re aiming to show their technique as perfectly as possible and they’re judged on this perfection. With contemporary dance you learn technique, but the actual performance is shaped by what you want to express – about yourself, about the world, about society. This is more or less how it is with traditional and contemporary circus. Traditional circus is focused on the replication of technique, doing something spectacular or superhuman, while contemporary circus is using those circus techniques and methods as a language, as an art form, to express something.

In the west we also have a long history of traditional circus. During the 19th Century you had these really big circuses in Europe and America, and for some of the massive ones in the US you could get an audience of tens of thousands of people at each pitch. During the early 19th Century you had circuses touring locally to small towns and you can imagine what it would have been like for the people there: growing up in a small town you would have never seen an elephant before, never seen an acrobat, never seen a contortionist, so the circus brought something that was amazing – something that was totally outside of ordinary life. Because of that power to amaze, and because of the power of spectacle, it became the biggest form of popular entertainment in the western world. Eventually film came along, which was cheap and easier to distribute, and oil prices went up so that it became more expensive to tour, and traditional circus sort of collapsed. Contemporary circus rose out of that, and because the old model didn’t work anymore it had to find something new.

ART.ZIP: 中國的馬戲團歷史悠久,但卻難以成為一種文化。您認為馬戲文化在西方的語境下是否更有影響力?

JE: 雜技和馬戲在中國有著悠久的歷史,俄羅斯也是如此。兩者都有很強大的馬戲傳統,但從美學的角度來說它們更接近傳統形式的馬戲表演。當代馬戲之於傳統馬戲,就像現代舞之於芭蕾舞一樣。芭蕾舞者的表演都有明文規定怎樣的姿勢才是正確的,從站立、移動、肩膀的形態到如何舉手投足等等,都有著嚴格的規定。所以當芭蕾舞者上台表演的時候,他們必須盡可能地完美呈現所學的一切,因為評判的標準就是如何做到所規定的極致的完美。但對於現代舞而言,舞蹈技巧是基礎,但實際演出的時候只是以舞蹈作為一種方式來表達自己,表達對世界,對社會的想法。這或多或少解釋了傳統馬戲和當代馬戲的不同。傳統馬戲專注于技巧的成熟,做一些讓人嘆為觀止或超越人類極限的表演,而當代馬戲僅是利用這些技巧和表演作為一種語言,作為一種藝術形式來進行表達某種觀點或想法。

當然西方國家也有歷史悠久的傳統馬戲,19世紀時,在歐洲和美洲都有很龐大的馬戲團,美國有些大規模的馬戲團甚至可以容納數萬名觀眾。19世紀的馬戲團從大城市到小鄉村巡迴演出,你可以想像在某些小鎮鄉村,那裡的人可能一輩子都沒看過大象、雜技演員和柔術演員,對他們來說,馬戲帶來了前所未有的新奇體驗。因為這些令人嘖嘖稱奇的盛大表演使得馬戲成為西方文化裡最大型的大眾娛樂。後來,隨著電影的出現,傳統馬戲漸漸走向衰落,一來因為電影的成本更低,更容易散佈到各個地方,二來石油價格的上漲提高了馬戲團巡演的成本。當代馬戲也算從中應運而生,因為老一套已經不管用了,所以必須尋求突破來獲得重生。

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