In 1940, during the Second World War, the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA), was appointed to help promote and maintain British culture. The Council was government-funded and after the war was renamed the arts Council of Great Britain.
“英格蘭藝術委員會(arts Council England)” 的前身可以追溯到二戰時期。為了保存英國 文化和促進其發展,“促進音樂藝術理事會” (Council for the encouragement of Music and the arts <CEMA>)於1940年正式成立, 這個由政府出資和管理的組織在二戰以後被重 新命名為“大不列顛藝術委員會(arts Council of Great Britain)”。
Subject to different political parties, different policies and with different managers, the development of the arts Council of Great Britain became mired in politics and bureaucracy. It is argued that from the 1950s to the early 1990s the Council made little contribution in the fields of culture and art.
在二戰後很長一段時間,礙於由政府出資和管 理,大不列顛藝術委員會在很大程度上成為了 政治遊戲和官僚主義的遊樂場,受盡了不同政 黨、不同政策及不同管理者的影響,所以這個 委員會的發展可以說是一波三折,從二十世紀 50年代到90年代初並沒有在文化藝術領域做出 太多的貢獻。
In 1994, the arts Council of Great Britain was divided into three separate bodies, arts Council England, Scottish arts Council and arts Council of Wales. since then arts Council England has been a non-departmental public body of the department of Culture, Media and sport, responsible for distributing lottery funding. This investment has helped fund and develop many arts institutions and organizations, as well as a large number of high-quality arts activities. The arts funding system in England underwent considerable reorganization in 2003 when all of the regional arts boards were subsumed into arts Council England. Today, arts Council England has been a significant government-funded organization committed to promoting performance art, visual art and literary in England.
直到1994年,大不列顛藝術委員會按地區劃分 為三個獨立委員會,分別為“英格蘭藝術委員會 (arts Council England)”、“蘇格蘭藝術委員 會(Scottish arts Council )”及“威爾士藝術委 員會(arts Council of Wales)”。至此,英格蘭 藝術委員會正式成為了一個由英國文化媒體和 體育部監管下的一個非政府公共機構,負責對 應的國家彩票資金分配。這項投資已經幫助了 眾多藝術機構的建設,以及資助了大量高品質 的藝術活動。現在,英格蘭藝術委員會是一個由政府資助但獨立運作的機構,致力於推動表 演、視覺藝術和文學藝術。
From the development history of arts Council, it is easy to see that national arts funding in the UK is closely related to the state of social, political and economic development. Following the different stages of social development, government’s changing definition of arts development had a great impact on the whole development of the funding system. From the Second World War to the 90s, the Arts Council, under government administration, existed as a general governmental department. However, after the Labour Party coming to power in the late 90s, culture and arts were used as major means of public engagement and promoting new areas of economic growth. The arts Council since then became an independent non-governmental organization (NGO) with greater flexibility and policy position. To some extent, it has greatly promoted important arts movement like the YBAs— young British artists.
從英格蘭藝術委員會的歷史變遷上不難看 出,國家級藝術資助體系的發展與整個英國 經濟、政治及社會的發展是息息相關的。在社 會發展的不同階段,政府對藝術發展的定義 及訴求的不同在很大程度上影響了整個資助 體系的變革。在二戰后到上世紀90年代,英國 政府管理下的藝術委員會僅僅是作為一個中 規中矩的政府官僚部門而存在。從上世紀90 年代中後期開始,隨著工黨上臺,在文化藝術 被作為與民眾溝通的手段和促進經濟增長的 新領域以後,藝術委員會成立為獨立的非政 府公共機構,其靈活性和政策地位都有了顯 著的提高,可以說也是客觀上推動了在當時出 現的“英國年輕藝術家群體(young British artist—YBA)”等極具影響力的藝術事件。
In 2001, Alan Davey, the Chief executive of the arts Council England proposed a ten-year arts development plan, which took into account the direction which UK industry and the creative industries were going.
Statistics reveal although funding for arts and culture has decreased due to the global economic crisis since 2008, however, over the past 20 years, the UK government has significantly increased investment into the fields of arts and culture. From the long-term goals of the arts Council, it is easy to find that the strategies of cultural development reflect the UK society of today—strong support of cultural diversity (immigration and multi-ethnic coexistence), stimulating the youth’s creativity through arts and culture (educating the young), increasing more public engagement (development of arts and creative industries), the encouraging of artistic creativity (development of entertainment and cultural industries), and the application of new technologies and innovation (maintaining the world’s leading position in the creative industries).
直到2001年,英格蘭藝術委員會執行官艾倫·戴 維(Alan Davey)提出的未來10年藝術發展 計劃,也是迎合英國創意產業發展和產業升級 的發展方向。從各種數據來看,雖然2008年 全球經濟危機使英國對文化藝術方面的資金 投入有所減少,但縱觀這20年來的發展情況, 英國政府從2000年以後確實大幅度地加大了 對文化藝術領域的投資。從英格蘭藝術委員 會的遠期目標中不難看出,英國未來的文化方 向都是基於對當今英國社會現狀的反映:大力 支持文化多元性(移民和多種族共存);通過 文化藝術激發青年人的創造力(青年人教育) ;提高藝術參與性和觀眾數量(發展娛樂和文 化產業);鼓勵藝術創作(保持創意產業生產 活力);新技術和創新的應用(保持創意產業 領先地位)。