As early as 1847, a British drama critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus, published a pamphlet criticizing the lack of serious dramas in British theatre, and also the fact that production of serious plays was restricted to the Lord Chamberlain’s Office, and the circumstance that the theatre was driven by commercialism and a ‘star’ system. In the following years, in order to maintain British serious dramas as well as the development and heritage of stage performance, tremendous efforts were made, and as a result, the New Shakespeare Company (now the Royal Shakespeare Company) was founded which is located in the homeland of Shakespeare. And specialized drama schools were gradually set up, such as the present Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. However, this still left the capital city of London without a national theatre.
早在1847年,署假名為“戲劇家”的一位 英國劇評人公開發表了一篇文章以抨擊 當時英國戲劇界嚴肅戲劇的缺失,並且 劇本需要通過張伯倫勛爵辦公室(Lord Chamberlain’s Office)的審查的現狀,並 且指出劇院被商業利益驅使,過度依賴 明星。隨後的若干年裡,為了維護英國嚴 肅戲劇以及舞臺表演的發展和傳承,一行 人不懈努力,終於逐漸興建了位於莎翁故 鄉的新莎士比亞劇團(如今的皇家莎士比 亞劇團)以及戲劇表演的專業學校(Royal Academy of Dramatic Art)。然而,在首 都倫敦,一個國家級別劇院的缺失問題仍 然沒有解決。
Under the influence of the war and funding until 1963, British national theatre in the full name of the Royal National Theatre was established, which was led by the famous actor Laurence Olivier. However, there was not enough government budget at that time to build a venue. In its establishment of the first more than ten years, the National Theatre had been using the Old Vic Theatre as its base near Waterloo station. Until 1977, it was finally settled into the present specially designed building in the South Bank. Built by architects Sir Denys Lasdun and Peter Softley, and also with the cooperation of the structural engineering firm Flint & Neill, the unique style of the National Theatre’s new site, which includes three theatre spaces, dominates the Thames bank side as an indelible symbol of the country’s cultural history.
In front of the Theatre nowadays, there still stands the statue of the character acted by Olivier in Hamlet, with the purpose to commemorate this first artistic director of the Theatre. Since its founding, the Theatre has presented from Shakespeare plays to the ancient classics, and also contemporary new works. There are 400, 900 and 1160 seats allocated in the three theatre spaces respectively in order to realize the purpose of presenting different types of plays. The three theatre spaces are named after the theatre’s first artistic director, the President, and the Chairman of the South Bank Theatre. In 2013, the smallest Cottesloe Theatre embarked on a one-year renovation, and a temporary building SHED has been set up with 250 seats to replace its place. With its re-opening in 2014, the Theatre will be renamed Dorfman Theatre, which is named after the founder of the exchange company Travelex, who is closely working with the National Theatre.
受到戰爭和經費的影響,直到1963年,英國國家劇院,全稱皇家國家劇院(The Royal National Theatre)才 在著名演員勞倫斯·奧利弗(Laurence Olivier)的主持下建立,然而 當時卻沒有足夠的政府預算為其單獨打造一個場館。在成立最初 的十幾年間,國家劇院一直使用滑鐵盧車站(Waterloo)附近的老 維克劇院(Old Vic Theatre)作為它的基地,直到1977年,才正式移 居到了現今南岸的這個專為其設計的建築。在建築師丹尼斯·拉斯 頓爵士(SirDenysLasdun)和皮特·蘇富特力(PeterSoftley)以 及弗林特和奧尼爾結構工程事務所(Flint & Neill)的合作下,這個 包含三個劇場空間,風格獨特的國家劇院新址建立在泰晤士河 畔,成為這個國家文化歷史上不可磨滅的符號之一。如今在劇院 門口,仍能看到以奧利弗在哈姆雷特中的造型為原型的雕像以紀 念劇院第一位藝術總監。從成立以來,劇院的節目選排包含從莎 士比亞到歷代經典劇作,同時也不乏當代新作。三個劇場分別擁 有400座,900座和1160座的觀眾席,也為呈現不同類型的劇目創 造了各種可能。三個劇場也分別以劇院的第一位藝術總監,主席 和南岸劇場(The South Bank Theatre)主席的姓氏命名。2013年, 最小的科特斯洛(Cottesloe)劇場開始了為期一年的裝修,並有臨 時搭建的設有250座位的“戲棚(” SHED)予以代替。2014年重新開業 之後,劇場也將更名為多爾夫曼(Dorfman Theatre)劇場,由與國家 劇院密切合作的換匯公司通濟隆(Travelex)的創始人的姓氏命 名。
The year 2013 witnesses the 50th anniversary of the British National Theatre, the celebration of which is diverse and humble. Aided by modern technologies, the celebration is shared through the means of Internet, Television, Radio and etc., by theatre enthusiasts from London, the UK, and all over the world. The highlights include the small celebration ceremony attended by the Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the two documentaries of the theatre broadcasted by BBC during the cerebration, the major exhibition of the historical development of the theatre’s front stage and backstage, the exhibition of its archive, the talks by well known artists who have a close bond with the theatre, and also the seminars about the future development of the theatre and presentation of future works. In the meantime, three classic plays were streamed on the big screen around the UK and in some other countries, being relived in front of the audience again.
2013年,英國國家劇院迎來了它五十周年的慶典。慶祝活動多樣而樸素。 受助於科技手段,通過網絡,電視,廣播等方式與倫敦當地,英國各地以 及世界範圍內的戲劇愛好者分享。亮點包括,由英國女王伊莉莎白二世 出席的小型慶典典禮,BBC電視臺按日程播放的上下集劇院紀錄片,劇院 臺前幕後歷史變遷的主題展覽,內部檔案展覽,與國家劇院有著不解之 緣的各位知名藝術家們的座談,劇院未來發展的研討會以及未來作品的 預演。同時,在全英和部分國家的電影院,三部經典作品也將通過大熒幕 播放,和觀眾們一起重溫那些已經告別了當下舞臺的作品。
From artistic to humanity values, such a diverse and homely celebration has been put on for the 50th anniversary of the National Theatre.