Honour Bayes is a theatre critic and journalist who have had work published in The Guardian, Time Out, The Stage, IdeasMag, Total Theatre, The Church Times and Exeunt Magazine. She is a regular columnist for The Stage focusing on Off West End and Fringe theatres with a particular interest on contemporary performance practice.
昂納·貝葉斯是一名戲劇評 論家和新聞工作者,曾在《衛 報》、《閑暇》、《舞臺》、《思 想雜誌》、《總劇院》、《教會 時報》和《退場》上發表文 章。因為對當代舞臺表演有 著濃厚的興趣,她也擔任著 《舞臺》雜誌中倫敦西區外 劇院和邊緣小劇院欄目的定 期專欄作家。
In 1956 John Osborne’s ‘Look Back in Anger’ at the Royal Court Theatre heralded a new era in British theatre and a genre was born: New Writing. While all playwrights start off as unknown new writers, New Writing usually refers to those British writers who emerged in successive waves in the wake of Osborne’s explosive play. Each new wave has reinvented theatrical language, often being contemporary in tone, urgent in theme and experimental in form.
1956年在皇家宮廷劇院上演的約翰·奧斯本 (John Osborne)的《憤怒中回首(Look Back in Anger)》預示著英國劇院一個新時代的到來,同 時也衍生出一個新流派:新寫作派。雖然所有劇 作家都是從不知名的新作家開始一步步發展的, 但新寫作派通常指那些緊隨奧斯本開創性戲劇 的英國作家。每一波新浪潮都重塑戲劇言語、使 用當代話語、選用緊張主題、創新新形式。
Over the years rather than petering out this tide of new talent in British theatre has gone from strength to strength. The end of the 20th Century was defined by what critic Aleks Sierz termed ‘In- Yer-Face theatre’, a theatre that “grabs the audience by the scruff of the neck and shakes it until it gets the message”. Personified by writers such as Sarah Kane, Mark Ravenhill and Anthony Neilson this was writing that was extreme, shocking and disturbing but also poetic and acutely beautiful, both capturing the zeitgeist and questioning it.
過去幾年,這些英國戲劇的新人才隊伍不僅沒有失去光芒,而是不斷壯 大。評論家阿列克·齊爾茨(Aleks Sierz)將20世紀末稱為“直面戲劇”, 這種戲劇用最直接、甚至有些粗魯的方式讓觀眾明白作者想要傳遞的 信息。莎拉·凱恩(Sarah Kane)、馬克·雷文希爾(Mark Ravenhill)和 安東尼(Anthony Neilson)等作家的作品都很偏激、令人震驚不安,但 同時不失詩意與美感,既抓住了時代的潮流,又實現了創新。
It’s a movement that both stylistically and conceptually forms the basis of much of the new writing that we see on British stages today. But In-Yer-Face theatre was also of its time, defining an era that’s been and gone. It is to the 1990s what absurdism was to the 1950s, or what kitchen-sink drama was to the Macmillan years. As we move further into the 21st Century the question is “what is New Writing now?”
對於今天我們所看到的新寫作創造的英國舞臺戲劇,這項運動在風格和 概念方面為其奠定了基礎。直面劇場也是當年時代的產物,意味著一個 時代戲劇的過去和消逝:從20世紀50年代的什麽是荒誕主義到1986年麥 克米倫時代的什麽是市井生活的嚴肅戲劇(kitchen-sink drama)。當我 們踏入21世紀後,隨之而來的問題是什麽是新寫作?
It is impossible to give one answer of course. The perspective needed to neatly categorise and wrap up what’s happening in new writing in a catchy title will only be possible in years to come. Perhaps even then, given the increasingly fractured nature of postmodern society, it will be hard. Yet from the wealth of voices currently grabbing the spotlight there are some strands starting to take shape.
這個問題無法給出一個確切答案。觀點統一一致、所發事件標題朗朗上 口吸引讀者,這些新要求只有在今後的幾年才可能實現。即使這樣,面對 後現代社會越來越多地矛盾,滿足上述要求也很困難。不過,從人們關注 討論的各種聲音中,一些潮流也開始漸漸體現出來。
And just what is that shape? Well, the increasingly fluid relationship between performance artists and writers; an inversion of the traditional British State of the Nation play; a rise in female playwrights; shifts in how plays are programmed and a new expansive confidence that’s seeing writers take on the epic. Moreover although the British stage still has a long way to go to fully reflect its multicultural society, a new entrant as Artistic Director of the National Theatre could be about to change all that.
那這潮流都是什麽呢?表演藝術家與作家之間日益凸顯的順利合作的關 系;民族戲劇中傳統英國舞臺劇地位發生反轉;女劇作家數量增加;戲劇 編排方式進行了轉變;對表現宏大場面的戲劇,作家的信心逐漸增加等 等。此外,對於充分反映多元化的社會,英國戲劇任重而道遠,英國國家 劇院的新任藝術總監可能會改變這一切。
Over recent years the breakdown of barriers between two previously diametric theatrical opposites – performance art and playwriting – has been thrilling to watch. Not so long ago performance artists would sit in studios and devise live art while playwrights would sit at desks writing plays. Never the twain did meet. But over the last decade artists of both disciplines are beginning to mix with rich results.
近幾年來,作為戲劇的兩個極端,藝術表演和劇本創作之間對立矛盾的 瓦解讓人驚奇不已。而在這種瓦解發生的不久之前,表演藝術家還是坐 在演播室裏創造生活藝術,而劇作家則坐在書桌前編寫劇本。這看似聯 系緊密的兩者卻從未接觸合作。不過在過去十年中,兩個領域的藝術家 都開始相互合作並取得豐碩成果。
Artists like Chris Goode, Caroline Horton, Tim Crouch and companies such as Made In China are making work that is at the juncture of both – text based devised pieces that are as experimental and avant-garde in form as they are story led.
一些藝術家像克裏斯·古德(Chris Goode)、卡羅琳·霍頓(Caroline Horton)、 蒂姆·克勞奇(Tim Crouch)和一些公司如中國制造(Made In China)正努力 的連接兩者。在藝術家設計的作品基礎之上,劇作家的寫作正如這些作品所 引領的一樣具有嘗試性和前衛性。
This is thanks to institutions like the National Theatre Studio (NTS). The development arm of the National Theatre, the NTS provides an environment where playwrights, actors, directors, companies and live artists can explore, experiment and devise new work under one roof.
這要歸功於像英國國家劇院這樣的機構。作為民族戲劇的發展機構,英 國國家劇院為劇作家、演員、導演、公司和現場藝術家提供了一個可以一 起探索、實驗和創作新作品的共事環境。
By placing so many theatre makers side by side the NTS has become a melting pot of ideas and inspirations resulting in collaborations that interrogate the previously restrictive limitations placed around new writing and live art.
這麽多的戲劇制作人並肩作戰,英國國家劇院猶如一個大熔爐,將他們 的思想和靈感融合,使他們協同合作,突破以前新寫作和現場藝術創造 的約束性限制。
Just as a freedom from old fashioned categorisations is affecting the shape of new writing so are new more flexible forms of programming. Theatres like the Royal Court and Lyric Hammersmith are experimenting with seasons that enable writers to get their work on stages through unexpected channels.
突破老式過時的分離創作方式正影響著新寫作派風格,並產生了新的形 式更靈活的編劇方式。像皇家宮廷劇院和哈默史密斯劇院等將作品分 季,在不同季的作品中進行不同的嘗試,使作家們通過原來沒想到的方 式將自己的作品展現在舞臺上。
Open Court saw incoming Artistic Director Vicky Featherstone hand over the keys of the Royal Court to the writers that have made it such a success. 140 playwrights, including Caryl Churchill, Mark Ravenhill, Terry Johnson, Simon Stephens and Dennis Kelly, curated a festival that took over every nook and cranny of the building.
開放劇場(OpenCourt)新上任的藝術總監維姬·費瑟斯通(VickyFeatherstone) 將皇家宮廷劇院最重要的環節交給這些作家,並取得了很大的成 功。140名劇作家,包括卡裏爾·丘吉爾(Caryl Churchill),馬克·雷諾 德(Mark Ravenhill),特裏·約翰遜(Terry Johnson),西蒙·斯蒂芬 斯(Simon Stephens)和丹尼斯·凱利(Dennis Kelly),他們一起策 劃的藝術節把整個宮廷劇院都充分運用起來。
Lost In Theatre saw ten writers write short plays to be heard through headphones. Echoing a radio format these vignettes placed the audience at random points around the building, listening as the world bustled around them. They encouraged new writing to be perceived as something that can live and breath outside of the proscenium arch and asked writers to write for such an environment.
在迷失劇院(Lost In Theatre),10位作家編寫的短劇是通過耳機來聽的。 觀眾站在劇場任意一個角落都會聽到不同的回響,事件就在耳邊發生。 他們鼓勵新寫作可以跳脫傳統的固定舞台形式去創作新的表現形式。
Surprise Theatre saw a different surprise play performed each Monday and Tuesday night. It created a unique one off performance, which remained a mystery to its audience right up until the lights went down. Written to only ever be performed once, this method of programming meant the style of writing had a much more immediate tone with the temporality giving the playwrights the bravery to experiment.
在驚喜劇院(Surprise Theatre),每周一和周二晚上都會上演不同的驚喜 表演。這是一種很獨特的一次性表演,開場之前觀眾會一直身陷謎團,直 到燈光暗去演出開始。每一部劇只上演一次,這樣劇作家們就有更充裕 的時間去實驗。
Over at the Lyric Hammersmith secrecy is again being used to encourage risk and experimentation. Artistic Director Sean Holmes’ season Secret Theatre is doing exactly what it says on the tin. The shows are titled Show 1, Show 2 etc. and are kept a secret from the audience until the curtain goes up. Holmes believes that this frees up the creative team to work without pressure of expectation. It also negates the long term marketing deadlines that require artists to write about their shows months before they’ve actually made them – unhealthily crystallising them and making for stagnant theatre.
哈默史密斯劇院同樣鼓勵這種新劇創作的神祕性。藝術總監肖恩·福爾摩 斯負責的秘密劇場(Secret Theatre)就是如此。表演以“第一場”、“第二 場”等直接命名,等待帷幕揭起觀眾才會知道是怎麼樣的故事。福爾摩斯 認為,這樣可以讓劇作家擺脫來自觀眾的期望性壓力,不必顧慮市場宣 傳期,可以盡情釋放創作團隊的創意。
Including two pieces of new writing this season has enabled two playwrights to try out things stylistically that would be impossible within the old framework, changing things in rehearsal and making the writing process a much more organic and collaborative process.
這一季演出囊括了兩部新寫作劇本,兩名劇作家進行了顛覆傳統劇本框 架的新式文風創作,一邊彩排一邊進行劇本修改,讓寫作過程變得更自 然流暢、更具合作性的創意過程。
One of Secret Theatre’s writers is Caroline Bird, who did a superb adaptation of The Trojan Women at the Gate Theatre last year. She is just one of an increasing group of women playwrights who are shifting the landscape of new writing by bringing a female perspective to British stages.
卡羅琳·伯德(Caroline Bird)是秘密劇場的一位編劇,去年成功改寫了大門 大劇院(Gate Theatre)的《特洛伊婦女(The Trojan Women)》。當今存 在著一個女劇作家群體,她們給英國舞臺表演帶來女性視角並改變新寫作 局面,卡羅琳·伯德就是這個群體的一員,而且該群體人數也越來越多。
The cannon may be the domain of dead white males but new writing is increasingly taking on a more feminine slant. Everywhere, theatres dedicated to new writing have seen an explosion in vibrant, thought-provoking and often darkly funny plays by young women. Polly Stenham, Anya Reiss, Ella Hickson, Penelope Skinner, Nina Raine and Bola Agbaje have all received both critical and popular success over the last five years.
這種激烈的碰撞可能對白人男劇作家帶來巨大影響,但不得不說,新寫 作已經越來越多的傾向女性。致力於新劇作的劇院,由年輕女性創作 的充滿活力、發人深省且不失黑色幽默的劇作激增。在過去五年裏,波 莉·斯泰納姆(Polly Stenham)、安雅·瑞斯(Anya Reiss)、艾拉·希克 森(Ella Hickson)、佩內洛普·斯金納(Penelope Skinner)、尼娜·瑞恩 (Nina Raine)以及博拉·艾格拜吉(Bola Agbaje)都在票房與口碑上取 得了極大的成功。
Writers like Laura Wade and Lucy Prebble are making the leap from Off West End hits to West End ones while in 2008 Rebecca Lenkiewicz became the first woman to be commissioned for a main stage play at the National Theatre when she wrote Her Naked Skin for the Olivier.
像勞拉·韋德(Laura Wade)和露西·柏寶(Lucy Prebble)等作家從倫敦西 區外的邊緣劇院成功躋身於倫敦西區劇院。2008年時,麗貝卡·蘭凱維奇 (Rebecca Lenkiewicz)為奧利維爾獎完成著作《裸露肌膚(Her Naked Skin)》,成為第一位受委任的在英國國家劇院能夠進行長期舞臺寫作的 女作家。
Another exciting female playwright is Lucy Kirkwood. Interestingly Kirkwood has stated that she hates to be defined as a female playwright, and wrote her macabrely comic, butcher- set play Tinderbox precisely to trip up those who thought they knew what a woman was ‘supposed’ to write. A number of her contemporaries agree with her and it’s important to note that these writers are not writing solely for, or about, women. However the way they view the world is undoubtedly coloured by their experience of it, which will be inherently different to that of a man. Their voices add a shot of diversity to the world of new writing, a diversity that is often sadly lacking in British stages.
另一位引以為豪的女劇作家是露西·柯克伍德(Lucy Kirkwood)。有 趣的是柯克伍德曾表示,她討厭被定義為一位女編劇。她的劇作《聽盒 (Tinderbox)》給了那些自以為了解女作家應該如何寫作的人一個響 亮的教訓。許多同代人甚是贊同她的寫作方式。最值得注意的是,這 些新作家并不只為女性同胞寫作,也不只局限於女性題材。當然,她們 自身的經歷也會對她們看待世界的方式產生影響,這在本質上與男性 視角不同。這些女作家的看法為新寫作領域增添了多樣性,而英國戲 劇表演相當缺乏這種多樣性。
Bola Agbaje, speaking to The Telegraph, said “I think I realised that there were no black roles and I just thought, “OK, I’m not going to complain about it. I’m going to write the roles, I’m going to create it.”’ Her success is an exciting move towards a theatre that fully reflects its multicultural society. But it’s still not enough – the world of new writing may have opened its doors to women, but the voices of minority groups are still parlously absent.
博拉·艾格拜吉曾對《每日電訊報》說:“當我意識到自己未曾創作過任何 黑人角色以後,我對自己說,“我不能光抱怨不寫啊”,然後我就好好寫了 些黑人角色。” 她的成功對於展現多元文化社會這一目標又邁進了堅實 的一步。當然,這些還都是遠遠不夠的,新寫作領域接納了女性作家,但 一些少數群體的聲音仍然被忽略了。
This is all set to change under Rufus Norris, who earlier this month was confirmed as Nick Hytner’s replacement as Artistic Director of the National Theatre. One of Norris’ main themes is diversity - as proven by past productions including Vernon God Little, Feast, Market Boy and The Amen Corner – and at the press conference announcing his appointment he said “It’s too early to talk about specifics but in terms of gender balance, cultural diversity and general diversity it will be really exciting to see where we can go.” It’s an encouraging sentiment from the man who’s just taken on the most powerful role in British theatre. It points to a richer range of playwriting voices on main stages in the future.
本月初接替尼克·赫特納(Nick Hytner)成為新一任英國國家劇院藝術總 監的魯弗斯·諾裏斯(Rufus Norris)註定成為改變現狀的關鍵人物。諾裏 斯其中的一個主要議題就是多樣性的發展,之前上演的作品也證實了這一 點,比如《維農少年(Vernon God Little)》、《盛宴(Feast)》、《集市男 孩(Market Boy)》以及《阿門困境(The Amen Corner)》等,都體現出了 多樣性。在就職新聞發布會上,他說到:“現在談論具體項目細節還為時過 早,但我們都迫不及待想看看不受性別界限、充滿文化多樣性及普遍多樣 化的劇本能帶給我們怎樣的驚喜。”諾裏斯擔任著英國戲劇界舉足輕重的 角色,他的講話確實令人備受鼓舞,這意味著未來主流舞臺將充滿更為豐 富的創作聲音。”
It is even to be hoped that under Norris the vast area of new writing that perhaps needs the most work – new musical theatre – will move forward. Norris has a brilliant track record of understanding the power of music in theatre. It is not hyperbole to say that the Alecky Blythe and Adam Cork’s musical London Road, which Norris directed at the Cottesloe Theatre, marks the first innovate step forward musical theatre has made in a long time. One can only hope it’s the first of many at the National from now on.
人們更希望,在諾裏斯的領導下,新寫作領域中的新音樂劇也會向前邁 進。對於戲劇中的音樂力量,諾裏斯可謂理解深刻。毫不誇張的說,由 諾裏斯指導的、艾力克·布萊斯(Alecky Blythe)和亞當·科克(Adam Cork)創作的音樂劇《倫敦路(London Road)》邁出了音樂劇史上的創 新第一步。希望這只是英國國家劇院眾多項目的其中一個。
Still for all this talk of future hopes if we look around us today it is doubtlessly true that new writing is more varied than it has ever been before. So much so that what Guardian theatre critic Michael Billington argued was a staple of 20th century British writing, the ‘State of the Nation’ play, is now perhaps impossible to define. The idea that you can refract national identity in one tidy narrative has become almost impossible given our increasingly post modern, multifarious society.
對於未來,我們無疑希望新寫作能帶來更前所未有的變化。正如《衛報》 戲劇評論家邁克爾·比林頓(Michael Billington)所說,現在代表國家形 象的劇很難準確定義。鑒於當今日益後現代、多元化的社會,通過一個 簡單的故事敘述來折射出對國家對民族的認同已經幾乎不可能了。
In a reflection of theatre’s uncanny capacity to echo and encapsulate its surrounding society new writing is now becoming much more epic in form. The Internet has made the communities we feel part of international ones and as our horizons have grown bigger so have playwright’s ambitions.
在反映社會現狀方面,戲劇具有不可思議的魔力。而新戲劇寫作的形式 現在變得也越來越壯麗宏大。互聯網已經使我們感到自身已經成為國際 化社會的一部分,劇作家的抱負如同我們的眼界變得越來越大。
More and more pieces of new writing are now epic in scope as the confidence of emerging playwrights appears to have gone through the roof. Mike Bartlett’s expansive Earthquakes in London or 13 are great examples of this trend. Bartlett, previously a writer of intimate psychological dramas, has begun writing huge stories that spanned countries, decades and asked massive philosophical questions.
隨著新興劇作家的自信心日益增添,新寫作涵蓋範圍也越來越廣泛。 邁克·巴特利特(Mike Bartlett)編寫的《倫敦地震(Earthquakes in London)》和《13》恰恰反映了這種趨勢。巴特利特原是細膩心理劇 的作家,現在已經開始挑戰跨越國界、穿越時空、引發哲學思考的大型 劇作。
The possible reasons for this are suitably manifold. Bartlett’s Earthquakes in London was given an audacious production by Rupert Goold when it first appeared at the National. Goold exploded the script out, adding more and more and recollecting it in a much more expansive form. This was a case of director and writer making something bigger together and it was a process that Bartlett took inspiration from when he wrote his next play, the equally epic 13.
出現這種現象的原因可能是多方面的。在魯伯特·古爾德(Rupert Goold)的指導下,巴特利特編寫的《倫敦地震》進行了極為大膽的嘗 試,而這種創新也受到了國家大劇院的全力支持。古爾德突破了原有的 劇本,增添了更多情節使得劇本越來越豐滿。這是導演與劇作家合作創 造出更宏大的戲劇敘事的最好例子,而就在這次合作過程中,巴特利特 獲得新的靈感創作了《13》這部戲。
Goold also had this effect on Prebble during the award winning Enron, a spectacularly theatrical piece that in reherasal went from straight story to multi-media spectacular that included dinosaurs and musical numbers while concisely explaining the entire financial crisis. Prebble attributes much of this to her work with Goold and it is a theatricality she carried through to her next hit The Effect.
古爾德也將這種效果運用到普雷布爾(Prebble)的獲獎作品《安然 (Enron)》中。該劇從一個正常故事過渡到借用音樂劇的表現形式,甚 至恐龍道具出現的荒誕場面來表現整個經濟危機的混亂。普雷布爾和古 爾德在下一部熱門劇作《後果(The Effect)》裡也延用了這種風格。
Another possible reason for this shift is the so called ‘West Wing’ effect. American TV now involves some of the best storytelling out there. Seasons with over 20 episodes in each one are making it possible for writers to craft long term narrative arcs. These stories weave in many voices through long time periods and are able to explore both the personal and geopolitical at one and the same time and in great detail. Playwrights are now trying to incorporate these structures into their own practice as Kirkwood’s Chimerica or Simon Stephen’s Three Kingdoms attests.
產生這種轉變的另一個原因可能是所謂的“白宮風雲(The West Wing)”效應。現在美劇中 有很多很好的故事。每季20集可以實現更詳細的敘述,這些故事都通過不同的角度來探索 事件,個人差異和地理差異可以使事件更詳細地呈現在觀眾面前。戲劇作家現在也開始嘗 試融入這種結構來進行敘述,比如柯克伍德(Kirkwood)的《中美國(Chimerica)》或西 蒙·斯蒂芬的《三國(Three Kingdoms)》。
British theatre is experiencing a golden age of new writing. Years of healthy subsidy and investment have meant that the work we are seeing now, while vastly different in style and content, is of a thrillingly high standard. Public funding may have waned in recent years but it is to be hoped that this level of form continues, after all we’ve only just begun the 21st Century, a century that promises some of the most dramatic technological, ecological and sociological change yet. I for one can’t wait to see what the writers within it are going to give me next.
英國戲劇正處在新寫作的黃金時代。政府或私人機構對戲劇的補助及支持使我們現在看 到的戲劇可以有各式的風格和豐富的內容,並且具有相當驚人的高水準。雖然近幾年來 公共資金已經削減,但我們仍希望高質量的戲劇形式可以延續,畢竟21世紀才剛剛開始, 這是一個充滿翻天覆地的技術、生態和社會革新的世代。我迫不及待地想看一看新劇作 家們會帶給我們什麽樣的新變化。